Blog

How Does a Home DNA Kit Work

It seems to be the “thing” to do these days, but what is a DNA testing and what is the purpose? DNA testing is a medical test typically by a blood draw, sometimes by hair sample or saliva sample and until the past few years, has always been done in a doctor’s office or other medical setting. Today, there are home dna kits

The original purpose of  DNA testing was for family medical history and crime solving. Archeologists can use DNA testing to research and record genetic codes and the progression of earthly life over the centuries, forming a DNA database. Scientist working on space research use DNA testing on unknown species and unidentified articles from space too. 

DNA testing by a doctor’s office is typically to assess any possible health issues of an unborn child. This can include any risk the child may have in certain diseases that are genetic, like cancer. With this early of detecting, there is a hope to find a way to stop the spread. 

Today, a dna kit for home is used any of the following and may be court ordered or done with home DNA kits:

  1. Tracking down relatives to renew and reunite families. When many of the members in a family are deceased, we can now use home DNA kits to confirm biological connections through grandparent and sibling DNA testing.
  2. For paternity testing, typically this is court ordered to definitively confirm the paternity of a child for legal reasons such as child support. A home DNA kit may be used to provide a peace of mind for a suspecting parent. 
  3. Today, more people are interested in their family tree than ever before, and this has made the home dna test kit for siblings and other family members popular. Through this testing, we are able to find the genetics of our ancestors and our ethnic origins going back centuries. 

Where can I buy a home dna kit?

Home DNA kits are available at most, if not all, major drug stores and retail stores such as CVS, Rite Aid, Target, Walgreens Walmart, etc.   These home DNA kits are inexpensive to purchase but the test itself still has to be sent off to a lab for testing. The lab fees are in addition to purchasing home DNA kits. 

 The home DNA kits are the collection kit only and once you have the results, they are only viable for curiosity of paternity. They have no legal standing in court. However, they may give support in pursuing more information about paternity rights and hiring an attorney. So, while using home DNA kits is tempting for the curious or suspecting person, you should consider the following: 

  • Home DNA kits are more expensive once you pay the lab fees to process the DNA samples. 
  • Home DNA kits are not legal evidence in court. 

How much is a home dna test kit?

Home DNA kits can start as low as $30 for paternity purpose and go into the hundreds for ancestry and genetic purposes. There are different types of home DNA kits, with some being more concentrated and detailed. 

Are home dna kits reliable?

Not always, and home DNA kits  can leave important information out that you may other should know about your genetic disposition. Home DNA kits are not completely 100% accurate when it comes to health information, and any false positive or missed results could mislead a person when it comes to serious health issues. 

Is it safe to use dna kits?

For under $100, ancestry and genetic mutations can be discovered by millions of Americans today. In fact, over 12 million have purchased home DNA kits, but they are not a risk-free testing.  The financial, healthy, and privacy aspects of a person’s life can be destroyed by the results of home DNA kits. Five serious issues with using home DNA kits are: 

  • Inaccuracy 
  • Vulnerable to database hacks
  • Genetic information is often sold to highest bids 
  • No anonymity
  • Genetic data can be used and against a person(s)

Anyone that is going to purchase any of the home DNA kits, no matter what level of details you’re looking for or regardless of what you pay, you need to following the home dna collection kit instructions so that you know how to do a home dna kit correctly. Call (800) 219-4362 today for your home DNA testing kit!

How is Zygosity of twins determined?

How do you confirm Zygosity?

fraternal twin zygosityToday, expectant parents have the options to know what sex their baby will be or if they are expecting multiples. When it comes to having a birth of twin, zygosity is a concept that is important for parents to understand. It is very unlikely that the word zygosity is not going to come up in everyday conversation, so what is zygosity and furthermore, what is twin zygosity?  

Zygosity refers to the degree of similarity of genetics between DNA sequence  that are inherited from the parents. With twin zygosity, the degree of that genetic similarity within each pair can determine if the “identical” twins are in fact identical from every physical aspect.  Zygosity is a confusing thing for parents of twins and how categorizing twins is done with zygosity. 

What seems to be the old school way of determining if an expectant mother is carrying twins is by ultrasound. However, only way to be certain is by DNA twin zygosity testing  where the following aspects are used:   

  • Ultrasound markers
  • Placental sites
  • Dividing membrane thickness
  • Th lambda sign
  • Fetal gender 
  • Postpartum placental examination
  • Physical similarity questionnaire 
  • Blood type
  • DNA analysis from each twin

Using each of these things, scientists are able to determine twin zygosity with the DNA sample of each twin. With the DNA results, the scientists are able to compare the genetic markers and the sequences of their DNA.

Today though, just as we are able to do our own DNA testing to establish our ancestry,  we are able to purchase home twin zygosity dna kit and perform the testing ourselves.  So, is there a better twin zygosity test better than the others? What is the best twin zygosity test to do at home? However, any expectant mother should seek medical care by a professional and allow them perform any needed twin zygosity testing. 

Twin zygosity is designed to determine if the children of a multiple birth, be it twins, triplets, etc., are fraternal or identical twins genetically. The testing today can be more precise than just 5 years ago, with twin zygosity more distinct and clear by the time the children have reached the age of two. Still yet, the best way twin zygosity testing is still a DNA testing where sample are taken from each twin and each parent. 

There are implications in zygosity testing of multiple pregnancy occasionally. For instance, Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and the medical complications that can stem from TTTS.  It cannot be confirmed inconclusively by twin zygosity testing. DNA analysis is needed for doctors to be closer to 100% certain. Where twin zygosity testing comes into play in a helpful manner is for  organ or tissue transplant. 

What is more common dizygotic and monozygotic?

To clarify the difference, monozygotic is identical  twins and dizygotic is fraternal twins, or non-identical.  The monozygotic twins come from a single egg and dizygotic twins are from two egg that were fertilized simultaneously. The birth of dizygotic twins are more common monozygotic twins.

What is the most common twin zygosity, is there are correlation between the mother’s age and the twin zygosity?  The older the mother is when she conceives, the higher the chance of her giving birth to fraternal twin births. When fertility treatments are used to get pregnant, the rate of fraternal twins increase. With various factors considered, fraternal twin  occur in three out of very one hundred births. 

Who carries the twin gene?

Genetic research has found that there is two time great chance of having fraternal twins when there are fraternal twins on the woman’s side by either her mother or sister.  This “twin gene” is caused by hyper ovulation, the tendency for multiple eggs to be released during ovulation. 

Because only the woman ovulates, this connection is valid only for her side of the family. However, the “twin gene” can come from the father and be passed on to the daughter, it increases the daughter’s likely hood of giving birth to fraternal twins.  

What is the rarest type of twins?

twins asleepFraternal twins and identical twins are commonly known when it comes to “twin talk”, but we have learned there are “semi-identical” twins. This third category of twins is ’sesquizygous’, but what is the difference between them and monozygotic (identical) twins?

The monozygotic twins come from one fertilized egg that splits in two, with each part carrying an egg, either two boys or two girls, identical to each other, sharing 00% DNA.

The dizygotic twins are formed when two eggs are fertilized at the same time by two sperm. They are siblings with two unique genetics, sharing only 50% of their DNA.

Semi-identical twins are a rarity, with only two cases of this type of birth being recorded. They share between 50 and 100% of their genomes or the total of their DNA.

How can I tell if I’m an identical twin?

For a person to determine if they have an identical twin, A DNA twin zygosity test would need to be performed. Twin zygosity DNA testing is done by swabbing the inside of each twin’s cheeks and submitting those swabs to a DNA testing center. Want to get started on twin zygosity testing? Call Choice DNA at 800-219-4362.

Can you legally request a DNA test?

Can you get a DNA test through court?

Today, a new fad is being able to perform your own DNA testing by mail. You’re able to find out your own personal bloodline, crossmatch with another person to see if you’re related. DNA testing in that format is fun and interesting and could be troubling at some point in some families. This new fad will be one to keep a watch of how it affects lives. However, when it comes to a required court DNA testing though, the results can be detrimental to some lives and not so much fun. 

Yes, and typically this will happen when the mother of a child files a lawsuit om order to establish a child’s paternity. The laws can have some variance from state to state in regard to dna testing for court records. However, a man thought to be the father that has received order for court DNA testing  can refuse submitting his DNA. That can leave him facing contempt of court charges. 

A contempt of court charge can be punished with fines and jail time, fines, and possible a default judgment against him. With a default judgment will give the mother automatic remedy that can include child support. 

Can a DNA test be done with just the father and child?

An elevated CPI and Probability of Paternity will typically show 99.99% the man whose DNA is used along with the child that he is the father. Rare occasions the match isn’t strong enough between father and child for a strong conclusive result, then the biological mother’s DNA may be required by the court DNA testing orders. 

A high-quality paternity DNA test checks twenty Genetic Systems or markers, looking for matches between the supposed father and child. Each location should show matches if he is the biological father unless there is a natural occurrence of mutations. By adding the mother’s DNA testing, it can be determined if the child’s markers came from the father, thus making a stronger match. 

Who pays for a DNA test in court?

For dna testing for court cases, the Judge presiding over the case will decide if state assistance is needed in paying for the court DNA testing whether the parties involved need the assistance of the state. If the man that is allegedly the child’s father is unable to pay for a court DNA paternity testing, the judge will order the state to pay. Most states will have the petitioning party reimburse the state for the court paternity test costs.

What DNA test will hold up in court?

There are several instances in which dna court approved testing is ordered and necessary. The reasons could be child custody disagreement, parenthood dispute, a birth certificate issue, and others. For that reason, it is important that accurate DNA test results are available in a timely fashion as several lives are depending on the results. Those court DNA testing orders must follow the court’s regulations and standards.

DNA court approved testing can be used for the following reasons: 

  • Confirm and prove maternity or paternity
  • Establish child support payment rights
  • Establish rights for child custody and/or visitation with child(ren)
  • Assert a child’s rights military and/or government benefits 
  • Prove a person’s right to inheritance
  • Prove a person’s guilt or innocence in a criminal case
  • Complete immigration process

It is a four step process for legal court DNA testing to be performed. Each step has to be completed by a court approved party that handles the DNA samples in an appropriate manner. The court can deem testing results inadmissible if there is any indication of any step not being handled correctly.   Those four steps are: 

  • Step One: Court DNA sample is collected by an independent, third-party professional service, typically with a cheek swab after the identity of the person(s) being tested are confirmed by the professional service with a legal and valid ID. 
  • Step two: The court DNA sample is transported to court approved third-party where the testing is performed. This is referred to as the “chain of custody” and the courts review this chain to assure all the correct approved third parties were involved.
  • Step Three: The court DNA sample is tested at the court approved laboratory. The facility doing the test must be a court approved facility that is within the chain of custody and AABB accredited. 
  • Step Four: Court DNA testing results paperwork is sent to the judge presiding over the case. In most cases, the original paper from the testing laboratory must be submitted, not a photocopy or scanned copy. 

You may be wondering, “Can I refuse a court ordered paternity test?” and if so, are there consequences? You can do the home DNA testing every day, and while that may have an impact, it won’t have as powerful of impact as a court DNA testing. So, can the mother or father refuse to take a court DNA test? 

Sure, but there are consequences just as if you refused to testify when subpoenaed. If the mother of a paternity case refuses to follow court DNA test ruling, the judge can rule against her receiving any child support from the alleged father.  

If the alleged father refused to follow through with the court DNA testing, his consequences are more severe, even considered criminal contempt of court.  He’ll be fined and could face time behind bars in addition to the judge ruling he has to pay child support. Call 800-219-4362 today for your court DNA testing needs!

Choice DNA Featured on DNA Weekly

DNA Weekly LogoChoice DNA wants to share with you the latest news. This week, our company has been spotlighted by DNA Weekly, featuring an interview on DNA Testing services with our very own Lawrence Reese. DNA Weekly is an online publication that is dedicated to sharing top DNA testing services to help people find the best choice for their needs. In their interview, they highlighted out history, amazing DNA testing services, and our up-and-coming Face DNA Test App.  Lawrence also discusses the future of DNA testing and how the industry has evolved over the years, going from taking months to simply days in reporting back DNA analysis for people seeking answers. Read the full article here!

When Is Y-Chromosome Testing Necessary?

What is Y-chromosome testing?

gene readoutWe learn sometime in our early years of school that the human body is made of Y chromosomes and X chromosomes. These are the sex chromosomes that determine and individual’s biological sex. It is Y-chromosome testing that determines the father of a child, a process used when there is dispute or doubt. 

So, where do these X and Y chromosomes come from? The female inherits an X chromosome from the father, resulting in a XX genotype. The male inherits a Y chromosome from the father, resulting in a XY genotype. The mother only passes on the X chromosomes, so it is the chromosomes from the father that determine the sex of an unborn child, which brings us to why Y-chromosome testing is done when trying to prove, or disprove, the father of a child. 

Y-chromosome testing , often referred to as Y-DNA testing, is the process of testing a man’s patrilineal or direct ancestry in a father’s family line. The Y chromosome is passed down from a father to a son, essentially unchanged. Y-chromosome testing entails exploring at Y-STR segments of the father’s DNA found on the Y chromosome. The STR segments that are examined are referred to as the genetic markers and considered non-coding DNA.

How does Y-chromosome testing work?

There are three primary types of DNA tests available today, each of these tests provides different information. The three tests are: 

  • Y-chromosome
  • Mitochondrial
  • Autosomal

Y-chromosome testing uncovers the Y-chromosome haplogroup of the male. This is the ancient group of people where patrilineage descends. Since there is only one male-line of direct ancestors traced by Y-chromosome testing, there aren’t any females encapsulated in the results.

Do Father and son have the same Y-chromosome?

Each person’s inherited characteristics come from our DNA and chromosomes is how the DNA is determined. There are 46 chromosomes in the male human body. The majority of chromosomes are shuffled with each generation, including 2 of the female X-chromosomes, before they are passed on to the next generation. 

The Y-chromosome is different though and is inherited from father to son to grandson, and continued indefinitely, is almost unchanged, even though there is the shuffling mentioned above, creating a haphazard mixture of genetic codes from our grandparents and great-grandparents. Still, the male’s Y-chromosome remain identical for countless generations.

Is Y-chromosome testing necessary?

Y-chromosome testing is sometime necessary to clarify genealogical objectives. This objective has been the most common reason for Y-chromosome testing when working on a project to determine a family surname. This is to determine a specific hypothesis about a possible ancestry of two individuals where commonality is found. When the traditional way of using documentation to prove ancestry is missing or weak, genetic, or molecular genealogy is powerful and when used as a tool. It can  disprove or substantiate a hypotheses, resolving many DNA questions. 

Why get Y-chromosome testing done?

Y-chromosome and family names are passed on from generation to generation in many cultures around the world. Y-chromosome testing is used to examine the any  questions that two families or two persons may have when they share a surname to determine if they are related. 

How accurate is Y-DNA testing?

The accuracy of Y-chromosome testing is around 98% with  three possible outcomes for the determination of an unborn child’s sex. At the mother’s 20th week, an anomaly scan is performed and can sometimes confirm the fetal sex The three possible outcomes of  Y-chromosome testing are: 

  • One:  Y chromosome DNA is detected: Likely to be a male. 
  • Two: No Y chromosome DNA is detected: Likely to be female. 
  • Three:  Test failed due to insufficient DNA. The lab occasionally will not have enough to determine the DNA of the fetus.  

Can Y-chromosome testing be wrong?

After getting the positive result on your pregnancy test, the next question most expecting parents have is “Is it a boy or a girl?” There are many old wives’ tales about determining a baby’s sex, but today, thanks to medical science, you can get accurate information so that you can start painting that room! 

There are different ways available today to learn the unborn baby’s sex, with an accuracy of 99%, depending on the method used and when the test is conducted.  For example, when the NIPT ) Non-invasive prenatal testing) is performed at the mother’s 10th week, there is in the 99% of being correct. If done any earlier, there is a chance of the test being wrong. 

Other methods besides Y-chromosome testing for determining the unborn baby’s sex:

  • Ultrasound: Depending on your age, health, and risk level, a doctor may do an ultrasound each visit. Typically, the 20th week is the one where the sex can be determined. The accuracy of an ultrasound is usually between 95 to 99%. Factors that can alter this are the position of the baby, the sonographer’s skills, or if the baby is “hiding” that area of their body. The umbilical cord can be mistaken as a penis, giving a false reading. 
  • Amniocentesis: This is an invasive test, typically not recommended simply because the expecting parents want to know the sex. This is drawing genetic samples direct from the baby and is done when the doctor sees a need to check for chromosomal abnormalities or genetic problems. 

Is Y-chromosome testing safe?

Y-chromosome testing is performed by drawing blood from a person’s arm. There are no medical procedures performed, no anesthetics needed. 

What are the advantages of Y-chromosome STR profiling?

XY ChromosomesY-chromosome STR profiling can provide many advantages: 

  • Finding your family’s ancestory.
  • Confirm research performed on paper.
  • Forensic casework in solving crimes.
  • Detect the male component. 

Expectant parents and forensics have a benefit that didn’t exist even 20 years ago with Y-chromosome testing.  We can learn the sex of our unborn child, allowing us to choose a fitting name, decorate, and shop for a specific sex.  Police are able to determine who was at the scene of a crime, requiring some detective work getting DNA samples, but with modern medical science, many cold-cases have been solved, putting families at rest knowing what happened to a loved one. Call (800) 219-4362 today for y-chromosome testing!

Is Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Accurate?

pregnant woman medical test

What does non-invasive mean?

Prenatal testing has brought us healthier and safer birth since the 1950s, and with each year, the medical profession are able to tell us more and more from these tests. Birth defects and genetic diseases are discovered and cured before the child is born, or immediately afterward. Starting with the ultrasound, more commonly referred to as the sonogram, today, there are many more tests possible, both invasive and non-invasive prenatal testing

Non-invasive means the mother is only subjected to a blood test by way of a needle and syringe. The difference between non-invasive prenatal testing vs invasive testing, is explained as follows: 

Non-invasive prenatal testing is done by lab technician taking a blood draw from the mother during the first trimester with a needle through the arm. There cfDNA is viewed for detection of common aneuploidies. How to do a non-invasive prenatal test

Medical professionals that are trained how to do a non-invasive prenatal test method will use needles and probes inserted into the mother’s uterus. This process is referred to as an amniocentesis and is typically done between the 14th and 20th week of gestation. A chorionic villus sampling is sometimes performed between the 9.5 and 12.5 week gestation. The results are returned within eight to fourteen days. 

When can you do noninvasive prenatal test?

Non-invasive prenatal testing is a screening tool that allows the doctor to assess any genetic risk of a chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus. Those abnormalities include Down syndrome and others.  Typically, the test is performed at the 9 week stage of pregnancy and is one of the conclusive non-invasive prenatal tests available today. 

How long does it take to get noninvasive prenatal testing results?

A non-invasive prenatal testing is done by a lab technician or nurse taking a simple blood draw from the mother. There is absolutely no risks to the mother or fetus, this isn’t any different than any other blood draws. The blood is sent to a lab where it is analyzed, and the results are returned to the doctor’s office within eight to fourteen days. 

How accurate is the noninvasive prenatal test?

Non-invasive prenatal testing is typically done at the 9 week mark of a pregnancy, no later than 12 weeks. This elective test is done to check for any chromosomal disorders caused by extra or missing X and Y chromosomes. Among the disorders that can be discovered via non-invasive prenatal testing are: 

  • Down syndrome
  • Edwards syndrome
  • Patau syndrome

The non-invasive prenatal testing is done by looking at small pieces of cell-free DNA, referred to as cfDNA, from the placenta that is present in the expecting mother’s blood.  The cfDNA is created when these cells die and are broke down and release some DNA into the mother’s bloodstream.

This non-invasive prenatal testing is only a screening test, meaning that diagnosis of a genetic condition can be determined with certainty. It is only a way for the doctor to predict if there is a possible genetic condition risk. A non-invasive prenatal testing is also used to determine the unborn child’s sex, sooner than the typical ultrasound will show the gender. 

Can NIPT give false negative?

Noninvasive prenatal testing accuracy is said to be as >99% accurate. Maternal and placental mosaicism can contribute to results of this screening to have a false-positive. There are technical considerations that may lead to an incorrect reading, a reminder that medical professionals involved in non-invasive prenatal testing remind patients that this only a screening and should not be the only testing used to determine any possible outcome. More detailed and intense training should be performed and analyzed.

pregnant woman in waiting room

Is the NIPT test ever wrong for gender?

Diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive prenatal testing gender determination is extremely high. With a sensitivity of 98.9% and the specificity of the test at 99.6%, the predictive values of positive and negative ​​are respectively high, 99.6% and 98.8% in comparison. The further along the mother gets in her pregnancy, the more accurate non-invasive prenatal testing becomes. 

Both invasive and non-invasive prenatal testing have benefits and shortcomings. While invasive testing  is more reliable than non-invasive prenatal testing, it also has more chance of risks. It isn’t diagnostic but it is within 99% of accuracy in identifying abnormalities a fetus may have and it does that without putting the mother or unborn child at risk, whereas the invasive testing can. 

Choosing the non-invasive prenatal testing form reduces any risk of the mother miscarrying. It also reduces the risk of the amniotic sac being punctured or the placenta being damaged, both putting the mother and unborn child at risk. 

With all this said though, it is not a recommendation to go against a doctor’s recommendations. If there are concerns about having an invasive prenatal testing done, getting a second opinion may be in order. Call (800) 219-4362 today for your prenatal testing needs.

What Does Court Admissible Testing Mean?

court document requesting dna testing

Court & DNA testing

There is a unique DNA code inside all of us that is identified by the cells in our bodies. Our DNA code comes from our biological parents, 50% our mothers and 50% our fathers. Think of the yolk inside an egg and that is where  DNA is found in the core of a cell. When there is a dispute of a child’s parentage, the biological mother and the supposed biological dad often have to submit to court approved DNA testing.

Simply stated, DNA testing is proof of paternity for fatherhood and by establishing that paternity, the father will have legal obligations and legal rights to the child. To do this, the father in question or the mother needs to find somebody that knows how to get a court-approved DNA test. 

In the state of Indiana, both parents can file legal action in an Indiana court to determine paternity. Once this action has been filed, the court sets a hearing date, advising both parents and their attorneys. Either party may visit a county office for assistance in this matter as well. The hearing is to get both parties viewpoint on the parentage of said child and the judge will then issue a court approved DNA testing to be done by certain date. 

How long does it take to get court-ordered DNA results?

In the state of Indiana, court approved DNA testing result can take between five to eight weeks. There are outside services for DNA testing, but you need to confirm they follow the court’s DNA test requirements before you pay for their testing.  Not all DNA testing process are the same. 

Are home DNA paternity tests accurate?

Maybe yes, maybe no. There are several factors that can affect the reliability of any DNA testing, especially a home paternity test.  This is why courts have established court approved DNA testing places. What kind of factors can affect DNA testing? 

  • ONE: The lab that process the tests may have low quality qualifications and inadequate reliability. Other than court approved DNA testing centers, there isn’t a national accreditation or regulatory agency to oversee the laboratories processing standards. There isn’t an industry standard. 
  • TWO: It isn’t uncommon for errors in the sample collections. The errors include contamination of the samples or the testing equipment, improper collection, mixed up samples, etc. 
  • Three: Tested parties are not protected because of the lack of verifiable identification. No protection, legal or otherwise. 
  • Four: Other than court approved DNA testing centers, there isn’t any strict chain of command or custody for the testing samples collected. Meaning, anyone can have access to them and alter the contents. 
  • Five: Fraud and misuse are common with home test kits again, because there isn’t a chain of command or custody of the testing samples. In a court approved DNA testing center, there is constant supervision on the samples being drawn and processed. 

Can a DNA test be wrong?

A DNA paternity test is done by identifying certain specific DNA size pieces that the child received from the possible biological father. If the man’s and the child’s DNA tested were of the same size pieces, it is possible he is the biological father. 

However, other men could have those same size pieces, so DNA paternity testing lab tests additional DNA genetic markers. In general, the more DNA genetic that are tested, the more unique the total pattern will be because fewer men will also have the same pattern. 

If the DNA testing is stopped after only one pattern is identified, which is common, then the chance is greater that the supposed biological dad is not the man that was tested. So, while technically the test isn’t wrong, it isn’t as accurate as it could be. This isn’t as likely to happen with a court approved DNA testing center, but it isn’t unlikely either. 

What happens if you don’t take a DNA test, can you go to jail for not taking a DNA test?

If the DNA testing is a court approved DNA testing by a judge, and the father refuses to take the DNA testing, then he could be held in contempt.  Contempt of court had legal consequences starting with fines then up to and including criminal charges being file. If criminal charges are filed, the father could find himself serving time behind bars. 

gavel and court

Why would the court reject a DNA test?

A judge overseeing a paternity case can reject a DNA testing result if it was not done in a court approved DNA testing facility. This is a strong possibility for the five reasons we listed above. When a court orders DNA testing to be done at a specific place, there is a reason and the parents involved are well advised to follow orders as requested.

Let’s review the differences between a court approved DNA test vs home DNA test. The home paternity test is a personal choice and usually for a peace of mind or for  personal-information purposes. A court approved DNA testing is for resolution of legal paternity testing results that are court-admissible. These test results can be used for the following purposes:

  • Adoption
  • Child custody
  • Child support
  • Immigration
  • Inheritance 
  • Social security

The home paternity test process:

  1. The DNA kit is available off retailers’ shelves or online. 
  2. The person being testing can swab their own cheeks as well as the cheeks of the child and the mother. 
  3. The person who purchased the DNA testing and took the test mails it to the lab themselves.
  4. Results are returned on one business day. 

A court approved DNA testing:

  1. The father is given the number to the required lab or can order online as instructed by the court. 
  2. There are AABB accreditation requirements to be followed for legal testing and the test collections are sent by the specialist that takes the test. 
  3.  The samples are verified by the DNA Sample Center proof which is included in the paternity-test report, resulting the court approved DNA testing that is admissible
  4. The Collector will witness the participants swabbing or assist if needed.
  5. The Collector will complete all court-ordered paperwork, pack up the DNA samples, send direct to lab
  6. The results are often available in one business day.

Need court admissible DNA testing and reporting? Call us today at (800) 219-4362!

How Accurate is DNA Facial Recognition?

DNA Facial Recognition Maps Face Traits.

How accurate is DNA facial recognition?

Among the most recent innovations in DNA testing is DNA facial recognition. This type of testing involves electronically scanning your face, gathering in your facial traits, and comparing those traits with another person to see if there is a relationship. This can be used in paternity testing or even when tracing genealogy and ancestry. Is this type of testing accurate? Researching the genetics of facial traits is fairly new, but as new technologies evolve, accuracy will improve. Facial recognition can trace similarities in facial features with some accuracy and can suggest possible relationships. It can be the first step in establishing relationships. The most effective testing, however, is using mouth swabs or blood tests. These tests are 99% accurate. If you are looking for the most accurate DNA testing, including DNA facial recognition in Merrillville, IN, you’ll find it at Choice DNA Testing. We offer a full range of testing services. Find out more by calling (800) 219-4362.

Is face shape genetic?

While clearly genes are passed down and affect our facial features, research into the genetics of face shape is relatively new. It’s only been in the last few years that scientists have made inroads into understanding the role genes play in facial shape as they’ve studied how to prevent abnormalities in the face such as cleft lips. This type of research and the advances in technology will only make DNA facial recognition more and more accurate.

Can DNA predict a face?

As more and more research comes out about DNA facial recognition, it becomes a significant tool not only for genealogy and ancestry research as well as resolving legal issues like paternity. Moreover, it becomes more valuable in law enforcement investigations. Can DNA tell you what you look like? Private companies and researchers at universities are studying facial recognition from DNA. These studies look into how to match a person’s physical appearance to their DNA. This type of research could prove valuable in police investigations. Researchers, for instance, use blood tests to basically create a police sketch based on DNA coding. This process is known as DNA phenotyping. These current studies are nascent, and have yet to be peer-reviewed or further scrutinized. 

When did police start using DNA?

Some of the earliest uses of DNA evidence in police work developed in 1986 in the United Kingdom. While investigating a string of rapes and murders, police in Narborough, Leicestershire acquired blood samples from some 5,000 volunteers to test. This investigation led to the exoneration of one man who had confessed to the crimes, and to the conviction of another. The actual perpetrator wasn’t caught, however, based on the initial tests. He had coerced a co-worker to take the test for him but the deception was discovered and the perpetrator was arrested and later tested. DNA evidence was first used in the U.S. in 1987 in a trial of a man accused of sexually assaulting a mentally handicapped woman who later had a baby. DNA evidence came to prominent attention in the 1994 trial of former football star O.J. Simpson, accused of a double homicide. 

DNA facial recognition paternity test

A DNA facial recognition test can often be done within 24 hours and can be used to get fast results in a paternity test. The test’s accuracy may vary as this type of testing is new and the most accurate tests are still mouth swabs or blood tests. Facial recognition tests, however, are widely accepted as accurate and most companies provide guarantees on accuracy.

The process for the test is as follows:

  • A photo is uploaded online and submitted to the testing company.
  • An additional trait questionnaire is also submitted to the testing company.
  • The test uses the photo to scan features such as eye structure, the thickness of lips and width of the mouth, ear size, cheekbone structure, etc., and analyzes it and compares it to information provided by other parties in an attempt to make a match. 
  • Facial patterns are calculated to identify traits that can and cannot be passed from parent to child.

DNA facial recognition app

You can download DNA facial recognition apps for your smartphone. As with any app of this sort the accuracy will vary. Trained professionals like those at Choice DNA Testing can often give you better insight into the results of tests, and will often have the best equipment available for such tests. Some of these apps are connected with DNA testing companies, and you may have to pay a fee to get results. Other apps may be designed simply for personal use and enjoyment.

A Blood Test is a Traditional Way to Test DNA.

Ancestry DNA face recognition

When it comes to researching your genealogy, face recognition can be a useful tool, especially when you have no mouth swabs or blood samples available. If you are researching your ancestry and are interested in DNA facial recognition in Merrillville, IN, you get some of the most accurate testing around from Choice DNA Testing. We offer a wide array of testing services from ancestry to paternity testing. Learn more about how we can aid you in your research by calling (800) 219-4362.

What does Zygosity mean?

testing

DNA Testing and More

There are factors when twins are born that can help the delivering doctor determine if they are fraternal or identical. One of those factors is the placenta’s appearance, but that doesn’t provide a definitive answer. A twin zygosity test can take the comparison a step further and provide that definitive answer. 

Zygosity refers to identical twins coming from the one egg, a zygote, when early in the developing phase, the egg splits, forming two embryos. The twins born from this zygosity, coming from one egg that mated with one sperm, will have the exact same DNA. To learn more about a twin zygosity test in Merrillville, IN, connect with us by dialing (800) 219-4362.

What is a Zygosity test?

Twin zygosity testing can be done during prenatal or after birth. It evaluates DNA marker patterns concerning siblings to evaluate whether persons from multiple gestations, such as twins, triplets, are identical (monozygotic) or fraternal (dizygotic).

technician testing dna

What causes an egg to split into twins?

At the very beginning of development, one egg is fertilized by one sperm and forms identical twins, then the zygote splits in half. At this time, the zygote is a cluster of only a few cells. The division happening this early, each baby has precisely the same genetic information. 

When an expectant mother undergoes fertility assistance, identical twins can occur when one of the fertilized eggs is returned to her uterus, if that egg divides in half. This will create identical twins. 

Country, ethnicity, or race has no bearing on identical twins. Every couple has the same chance of having identical twins, regardless.  The odds of a pregnancy resulting in identical twins is one in every three sets. The remaining two-thirds are non-identical. 

How can you tell if twins are identical or fraternal?

  • Chromosomes: Identical twins are more than two individuals that look like each other. All babies possess XX or XY chromosomes, which distinguishes them as boys (XY) or girls (XX). A girl-boy twin set occurs when an X sperm fertilizes an X egg and a Y sperm fertilizes the other X egg. In rare cases are monozygotic twins are typically the same gender, therefore, it is safe to assume that a set of boy/girl twins are fraternal, which are the most common twin zygosity is approximately 40% of all twins born.
  • Blood Type: The blood type of multiples can assist in determining zygosity. The blood type of identical twins, (monozygotic) is typically the same, with some rare exceptions. The blood type of fraternal (dizygotic) twins could be different or the same. With this in mind, it is usually the conclusion that a set of twins with distinct blood types are fraternal. However, a set of twins with the matching blood type can be fraternal or identical. 
  • Development: A set of identical twins are developed from one fertilized egg, sharing the same placenta and typically two amniotic sacs. Fraternal twins are developed from two separate eggs and have individual amniotic sacs. 
  • DNA: A set of identical twins share the same DNA and typically develop at the same rate. Fraternal twins have separate DNA and develop differently. 

Do twins have same fingerprints?

Through twin zygosity test, the DNA fingerprints of dizygotic twins are used to identify them. If they do not match at least of two or more markers, the DNA fingerprints are a complete match, the twins are likely monozygotic. However, the complete genome of children cannot be determined solely by DNA fingerprinting. So, even with twin zygosity assessment, there is a slight possibility that twins, despite all DNA markers to match, are dizygotic.

How do you find Zygosity?

A twin zygosity test is with DNA. This is the most accurate process to determine zygosity. They take a swab from the mouth of each twin to be tested. The laboratory will use those swab samples to analyze the specific genetic markers of individual regions. It is important to note that the DNA of fraternal twins may differ.  

These regions are selected with extreme care because every human shares similar DNA.  Twin zygosity testing can be done on the cells found in amniotic fluid, blood, cheeks, and other tissues. Twin zygosity test does a comparison of the DNA profiles of the twins at several markers, looking for a match.

If there are many markers the same in a set of twins, the probability is 99% they are identical twins. If there is one marker different, we consider the twins as fraternal. The more markers the lab studies, more reliable the twin zygosity test results are.

sampling and testing dna

Noteworthy

If twin zygosity test interests you, it is important to find a laboratory that is reliable and trustworthy. You can do a Google search for “twin zygosity test near meto gain a list, then research several before deciding. You can also ask your own medical professionals to recommend a testing laboratory or inquire if they do the testing in-house. Dial (800) 219-4362 to talk with us about twin zygosity test in Merrillville, IN.

Ancestry DNA Testing

ancestoral family album with pictures scattered around

Get More of an Idea About Ancestry DNA Testing

Getting to know more about your ancestry can be an exciting process. You’ll be able to trace through generations and find out more about where your ancestors lived as well as common traits that you carry and will also pass down to future generations. Ancestry DNA testing can come in many forms and depending on what kind of test and company you go with you may be able to gather a plethora of information that you may not have known before. It’s essential to get familiar with ancestry DNA testing so that you can have an idea of what to expect with results and the process of testing. Get in touch with your chosen DNA company to see what others have experienced and to find out what test may be right for you. Until then, here is a little background knowledge regarding ancestry DNA testing that may prove particularly useful to you.

How accurate is DNA testing for ancestry?

Ancestry DNA testing can be regarded as a highly accurate method of reading hundreds of thousands of positions/markers in your DNA. Current technology with ancestry DNA testing on average has an accuracy rate of over 99% with each tested marker.

What does an ancestry DNA test reveal?

An ancestry DNA testing reveals autosomal, Y-chromosome, or mitochondrial DNA information depending on the company/test that you go with. With autosomal DNA tests, the entire genome of a person is surveyed over 700,00 locations. It will cover the maternal and paternal sides of a family tree which can cover all lineages.

What does AncestryDNA traits tell you?

Ancestry DNA testing traits have to do with attributes that you’ve inherited from your ancestors that you may also share with your family members and may continue to pass down to any future generations. Essentially, ancestry DNA testing traits will give you insight that is personal in order to help you understand how your DNA influences the parts of you that are unique.

How many generations should a family history cover?

Family history can cover multiple generations depending on how far back you are able to go. After completing 5 generations you’ll have 30 ancestors, 10 generations will give you 1022, and with 15 generations you’ll have 32,766 ancestors.

How far back does ancestry family tree go?

With ancestry DNA testing you may be able to go back into the last 1,000 years, with results showing you the areas your ancestors likely came from and your ethnic origins. You may even be able to connect with distant cousins that can be added to your family tree.

How many generations does DNA go back?

Genetically you may be able to inherit more than half of an ancestor’s DNA, going seven generations back less than 1% of your DNA is likely to come from any given ancestor.

double helix of the DNA in blue background

What are 3 characteristics of DNA?

Three Types of Chemical Components

  • Phosphate
  • Deoxyribose (sugar)
  • Nitrogenous (bases)
    • Adenine 
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine

Does ancestry tell you who your parents are?

If there is a question of parentage there are genealogists who can help adoptees or people who only know one parent track and locate their biological families.

Do you inherit more DNA from mother or father?

Genetically speaking you’ll carry more of your mother’s DNA as you carry little organelles that live with the cells or the mitochondria which can only be received from your mother.

Can siblings have different DNA?

Siblings can get different results with their ancestry DNA testing due to the fact that even though they may share the same parents DNA isn’t passed down from generation to generation in a single block. What’s more, not every child in a given family will get the same 50% of their mom’s or 50% of their dad’s DNA.

Reach Out to Professional DNA Testers For More Information

If you’re getting ready to start the process of ancestry dna testing get in touch with the company or do your research before committing to getting an idea of what will come next. Ancestry DNA testing can differ from kit to kit and ultimately you may be able to get more out of one than another depending on what is included in the test. As such, ancestry DNA testing is a very rewarding way to learn more about your history and discover the long lineage that your family carries. As the science behind DNA testing of any kind can be verbose, it may be an exciting endeavor to delve in deep on your own about what is essentially going on behind every DNA test. As it is, gathering information of any kind regarding your rich ancestral history will be a great addition to pass down to future generations as you’ll be able to keep your results for a long time. If you have any questions regarding ancestry DNA testing with processes and expectations get into contact with your chosen DNA testing lab and company soon!

If you’re interested in ancestry DNA testing in Merrillville, IN call (800) 219-4362 with Choice DNA Testing!