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When Is Y-Chromosome Testing Necessary?

What is Y-chromosome testing?

gene readoutWe learn sometime in our early years of school that the human body is made of Y chromosomes and X chromosomes. These are the sex chromosomes that determine and individual’s biological sex. It is Y-chromosome testing that determines the father of a child, a process used when there is dispute or doubt. 

So, where do these X and Y chromosomes come from? The female inherits an X chromosome from the father, resulting in a XX genotype. The male inherits a Y chromosome from the father, resulting in a XY genotype. The mother only passes on the X chromosomes, so it is the chromosomes from the father that determine the sex of an unborn child, which brings us to why Y-chromosome testing is done when trying to prove, or disprove, the father of a child. 

Y-chromosome testing , often referred to as Y-DNA testing, is the process of testing a man’s patrilineal or direct ancestry in a father’s family line. The Y chromosome is passed down from a father to a son, essentially unchanged. Y-chromosome testing entails exploring at Y-STR segments of the father’s DNA found on the Y chromosome. The STR segments that are examined are referred to as the genetic markers and considered non-coding DNA.

How does Y-chromosome testing work?

There are three primary types of DNA tests available today, each of these tests provides different information. The three tests are: 

  • Y-chromosome
  • Mitochondrial
  • Autosomal

Y-chromosome testing uncovers the Y-chromosome haplogroup of the male. This is the ancient group of people where patrilineage descends. Since there is only one male-line of direct ancestors traced by Y-chromosome testing, there aren’t any females encapsulated in the results.

Do Father and son have the same Y-chromosome?

Each person’s inherited characteristics come from our DNA and chromosomes is how the DNA is determined. There are 46 chromosomes in the male human body. The majority of chromosomes are shuffled with each generation, including 2 of the female X-chromosomes, before they are passed on to the next generation. 

The Y-chromosome is different though and is inherited from father to son to grandson, and continued indefinitely, is almost unchanged, even though there is the shuffling mentioned above, creating a haphazard mixture of genetic codes from our grandparents and great-grandparents. Still, the male’s Y-chromosome remain identical for countless generations.

Is Y-chromosome testing necessary?

Y-chromosome testing is sometime necessary to clarify genealogical objectives. This objective has been the most common reason for Y-chromosome testing when working on a project to determine a family surname. This is to determine a specific hypothesis about a possible ancestry of two individuals where commonality is found. When the traditional way of using documentation to prove ancestry is missing or weak, genetic, or molecular genealogy is powerful and when used as a tool. It can  disprove or substantiate a hypotheses, resolving many DNA questions. 

Why get Y-chromosome testing done?

Y-chromosome and family names are passed on from generation to generation in many cultures around the world. Y-chromosome testing is used to examine the any  questions that two families or two persons may have when they share a surname to determine if they are related. 

How accurate is Y-DNA testing?

The accuracy of Y-chromosome testing is around 98% with  three possible outcomes for the determination of an unborn child’s sex. At the mother’s 20th week, an anomaly scan is performed and can sometimes confirm the fetal sex The three possible outcomes of  Y-chromosome testing are: 

  • One:  Y chromosome DNA is detected: Likely to be a male. 
  • Two: No Y chromosome DNA is detected: Likely to be female. 
  • Three:  Test failed due to insufficient DNA. The lab occasionally will not have enough to determine the DNA of the fetus.  

Can Y-chromosome testing be wrong?

After getting the positive result on your pregnancy test, the next question most expecting parents have is “Is it a boy or a girl?” There are many old wives’ tales about determining a baby’s sex, but today, thanks to medical science, you can get accurate information so that you can start painting that room! 

There are different ways available today to learn the unborn baby’s sex, with an accuracy of 99 percent, depending on the method used and when the test is conducted.  For example, when the NIPT ) Non-invasive prenatal testing) is performed at the mother’s 10th week, there is in the 99 percent of being correct. If done any earlier, there is a chance of the test being wrong. 

Other methods besides Y-chromosome testing for determining the unborn baby’s sex:

  • Ultrasound: Depending on your age, health, and risk level, a doctor may do an ultrasound each visit. Typically, the 20th week is the one where the sex can be determined. The accuracy of an ultrasound is usually between 95 to 99 percent. Factors that can alter this is position of the baby, the sonographer’s skills, or the baby is “hiding” that area of their body. The umbilical cord has been mistaken as a penis, giving a false reading. 
  • Amniocentesis: This is an invasive test, typically not recommended simply because the expecting parents want to know the sex. This is drawing genetic samples direct from the baby and is done when the doctor sees a need to check for chromosomal abnormalities or genetic problems. 

Is Y-chromosome testing safe?

Y-chromosome testing is performed by drawing blood from a person’s arm. There are no medical procedures performed, no anesthetics needed. 

What are the advantages of Y-chromosome STR profiling?

XY ChromosomesY-chromosome STR profiling can provide many advantages: 

  • Finding your family’s ancestory.
  • Confirm research performed on paper.
  • Forensic casework in solving crimes.
  • Detect the male component. 

Expectant parents and forensics have a benefit that didn’t exist even 20 years ago with Y-chromosome testing.  We can learn the sex of our unborn child, allowing us to choose a fitting name, decorate, and shop for a specific sex.  Police are able to determine who was at the scene of a crime, requiring some detective work getting DNA samples, but with modern medical science, many cold-cases have been solved, putting families at rest knowing what happened to a loved one. Call 800-219-4362 today for y-chromosome testing!

Is Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Accurate?

pregnant woman medical test

What does non-invasive mean?

Prenatal testing has brought us healthier and safer birth since the 1950s, and with each year, the medical profession are able to tell us more and more from these tests. Birth defects and genetic diseases are discovered and cured before the child is born, or immediately afterward. Starting with the ultrasound, more commonly referred to as the sonogram, today, there are many more tests possible, both invasive and non-invasive prenatal testing

Non-invasive means the mother is only subjected to a blood test by way of a needle and syringe. The difference between non-invasive prenatal testing vs invasive testing, is explained as follows: 

Non-invasive prenatal testing is done by lab technician taking a blood draw from the mother during the first trimester with a needle through the arm. There cfDNA is viewed for detection of common aneuploidies. How to do a non-invasive prenatal test

Medical professionals that are trained how to do a non-invasive prenatal test method will use needles and probes inserted into the mother’s uterus. This process is referred to as an amniocentesis and is typically done between the 14th and 20th week of gestation. A chorionic villus sampling is sometimes performed between the 9.5 and 12.5 week gestation. The results are returned within eight to fourteen days. 

When can you do noninvasive prenatal test?

Non-invasive prenatal testing is a screening tool that allows the doctor to assess any genetic risk of a chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus. Those abnormalities include Down syndrome and others.  Typically, the test is performed at the 9 week stage of pregnancy and is one of the conclusive non-invasive prenatal tests available today. 

How long does it take to get noninvasive prenatal testing results?

A non-invasive prenatal testing is done by a lab technician or nurse taking a simple blood draw from the mother. There is absolutely no risks to the mother or fetus, this isn’t any different than any other blood draws. The blood is sent to a lab where it is analyzed, and the results are returned to the doctor’s office within eight to fourteen days. 

How accurate is the noninvasive prenatal test?

Non-invasive prenatal testing is typically done at the 9 week mark of a pregnancy, no later than 12 weeks. This elective test is done to check for any chromosomal disorders caused by extra or missing X and Y chromosomes. Among the disorders that can be discovered via non-invasive prenatal testing are: 

  • Down syndrome
  • Edwards syndrome
  • Patau syndrome

The non-invasive prenatal testing is done by looking at small pieces of cell-free DNA, referred to as cfDNA, from the placenta that is present in the expecting mother’s blood.  The cfDNA is created when these cells die and are broke down and release some DNA into the mother’s bloodstream.

This non-invasive prenatal testing is only a screening test, meaning that diagnosis of a genetic condition can be determined with certainty. It is only a way for the doctor to predict if there is a possible genetic condition risk. A non-invasive prenatal testing is also used to determine the unborn child’s sex, sooner than the typical ultrasound will show the gender. 

Can NIPT give false negative?

Noninvasive prenatal testing accuracy is said to be as >99% accurate. Maternal and placental mosaicism can contribute to results of this screening to have a false-positive. There are technical considerations that may lead to an incorrect reading, a reminder that medical professionals involved in non-invasive prenatal testing remind patients that this only a screening and should not be the only testing used to determine any possible outcome. More detailed and intense training should be performed and analyzed.

pregnant woman in waiting room

Is the NIPT test ever wrong for gender?

Diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive prenatal testing gender determination is extremely high. With a sensitivity of 98.9% and the specificity of the test at 99.6%, the predictive values of positive and negative ​​are respectively high, 99.6% and 98.8% in comparison. The further along the mother gets in her pregnancy, the more accurate non-invasive prenatal testing becomes. 

Both invasive and non-invasive prenatal testing have benefits and shortcomings. While invasive testing  is more reliable than non-invasive prenatal testing, it also has more chance of risks. It isn’t diagnostic but it is within 99% of accuracy in identifying abnormalities a fetus may have and it does that without putting the mother or unborn child at risk, whereas the invasive testing can. 

Choosing the non-invasive prenatal testing form reduces any risk of the mother miscarrying. It also reduces the risk of the amniotic sac being punctured or the placenta being damaged, both putting the mother and unborn child at risk. 

With all this said though, it is not a recommendation to go against a doctor’s recommendations. If there are concerns about having an invasive prenatal testing done, getting a second opinion may be in order. Call 800-219-4362 today for your prenatal testing needs.

What Does Court Admissible Testing Mean?

court document requesting dna testing

Court & DNA testing

There is a unique DNA code inside all of us that is identified by the cells in our bodies. Our DNA code comes from our biological parents, 50% our mothers and 50% our fathers. Think of the yolk inside an egg and that is where  DNA is found in the core of a cell. When there is a dispute of a child’s parentage, the biological mother and the supposed biological dad often have to submit to court approved DNA testing.

Simply stated, DNA testing is proof of paternity for fatherhood and by establishing that paternity, the father will have legal obligations and legal rights to the child. To do this, the father in question or the mother needs to find somebody that knows how to get a court-approved DNA test. 

In the state of Indiana, both parents can file legal action in an Indiana court to determine paternity. Once this action has been filed, the court sets a hearing date, advising both parents and their attorneys. Either party may visit a county office for assistance in this matter as well. The hearing is to get both parties viewpoint on the parentage of said child and the judge will then issue a court approved DNA testing to be done by certain date. 

How long does it take to get court-ordered DNA results?

In the state of Indiana, court approved DNA testing result can take between five to eight weeks. There are outside services for DNA testing, but you need to confirm they follow the court’s DNA test requirements before you pay for their testing.  Not all DNA testing process are the same. 

Are home DNA paternity tests accurate?

Maybe yes, maybe no. There are several factors that can affect the reliability of any DNA testing, especially a home paternity test.  This is why courts have established court approved DNA testing places. What kind of factors can affect DNA testing? 

  • ONE: The lab that process the tests may have low quality qualifications and inadequate reliability. Other than court approved DNA testing centers, there isn’t a national accreditation or regulatory agency to oversee the laboratories processing standards. There isn’t an industry standard. 
  • TWO: It isn’t uncommon for errors in the sample collections. The errors include contamination of the samples or the testing equipment, improper collection, mixed up samples, etc. 
  • Three: Tested parties are not protected because of the lack of verifiable identification. No protection, legal or otherwise. 
  • Four: Other than court approved DNA testing centers, there isn’t any strict chain of command or custody for the testing samples collected. Meaning, anyone can have access to them and alter the contents. 
  • Five: Fraud and misuse are common with home test kits again, because there isn’t a chain of command or custody of the testing samples. In a court approved DNA testing center, there is constant supervision on the samples being drawn and processed. 

Can a DNA test be wrong?

A DNA paternity test is done by identifying certain specific DNA size pieces that the child received from the possible biological father. If the man’s and the child’s DNA tested were of the same size pieces, it is possible he is the biological father. 

However, other men could have those same size pieces, so DNA paternity testing lab tests additional DNA genetic markers. In general, the more DNA genetic that are tested, the more unique the total pattern will be because fewer men will also have the same pattern. 

If the DNA testing is stopped after only one pattern is identified, which is common, then the chance is greater that the supposed biological dad is not the man that was tested. So, while technically the test isn’t wrong, it isn’t as accurate as it could be. This isn’t as likely to happen with a court approved DNA testing center, but it isn’t unlikely either. 

What happens if you don’t take a DNA test, can you go to jail for not taking a DNA test?

If the DNA testing is a court approved DNA testing by a judge, and the father refuses to take the DNA testing, then he could be held in contempt.  Contempt of court had legal consequences starting with fines then up to and including criminal charges being file. If criminal charges are filed, the father could find himself serving time behind bars. 

gavel and court

Why would the court reject a DNA test?

A judge overseeing a paternity case can reject a DNA testing result if it was not done in a court approved DNA testing facility. This is a strong possibility for the five reasons we listed above. When a court orders DNA testing to be done at a specific place, there is a reason and the parents involved are well advised to follow orders as requested.

Let’s review the differences between a court approved DNA test vs home DNA test. The home paternity test is a personal choice and usually for a peace of mind or for  personal-information purposes. A court approved DNA testing is for resolution of legal paternity testing results that are court-admissible. These test results can be used for the following purposes:

  • Adoption
  • Child custody
  • Child support
  • Immigration
  • Inheritance 
  • Social security

The home paternity test process:

  1. The DNA kit is available off retailers’ shelves or online. 
  2. The person being testing can swab their own cheeks as well as the cheeks of the child and the mother. 
  3. The person who purchased the DNA testing and took the test mails it to the lab themselves.
  4. Results are returned on one business day. 

A court approved DNA testing:

  1. The father is given the number to the required lab or can order online as instructed by the court. 
  2. There are AABB accreditation requirements to be followed for legal testing and the test collections are sent by the specialist that takes the test. 
  3.  The samples are verified by the DNA Sample Center proof which is included in the paternity-test report, resulting the court approved DNA testing that is admissible
  4. The Collector will witness the participants swabbing or assist if needed.
  5. The Collector will complete all court-ordered paperwork, pack up the DNA samples, send direct to lab
  6. The results are often available in one business day.

Need court admissible DNA testing and reporting? Call us today at 800-219-4362!

How Accurate is DNA Facial Recognition?

DNA Facial Recognition Maps Face Traits.

How accurate is DNA facial recognition?

Among the most recent innovations in DNA testing is DNA facial recognition. This type of testing involves electronically scanning your face, gathering in your facial traits, and comparing those traits with another person to see if there is a relationship. This can be used in paternity testing or even when tracing genealogy and ancestry. Is this type of testing accurate? Researching the genetics of facial traits is fairly new, but as new technologies evolve, accuracy will improve. Facial recognition can trace similarities in facial features with some accuracy and can suggest possible relationships. It can be the first step in establishing relationships. The most effective testing, however, is using mouth swabs or blood tests. These tests are 99% accurate. If you are looking for the most accurate DNA testing, including DNA facial recognition in , IN, you’ll find it at Choice DNA Testing. We offer a full range of testing services. Find out more by calling 800-219-4362.

Is face shape genetic?

While clearly genes are passed down and affect our facial features, research into the genetics of face shape is relatively new. It’s only been in the last few years that scientists have made inroads into understanding the role genes play in facial shape as they’ve studied how to prevent abnormalities in the face such as cleft lips. This type of research and the advances in technology will only make DNA facial recognition more and more accurate.

Can DNA predict a face?

As more and more research comes out about DNA facial recognition, it becomes a significant tool not only for genealogy and ancestry research as well as resolving legal issues like paternity. Moreover, it becomes more valuable in law enforcement investigations. Can DNA tell you what you look like? Private companies and researchers at universities are studying facial recognition from DNA. These studies look into how to match a person’s physical appearance to their DNA. This type of research could prove valuable in police investigations. Researchers, for instance, use blood tests to basically create a police sketch based on DNA coding. This process is known as DNA phenotyping. These current studies are nascent, and have yet to be peer-reviewed or further scrutinized. 

When did police start using DNA?

Some of the earliest uses of DNA evidence in police work developed in 1986 in the United Kingdom. While investigating a string of rapes and murders, police in Narborough, Leicestershire acquired blood samples from some 5,000 volunteers to test. This investigation led to the exoneration of one man who had confessed to the crimes, and to the conviction of another. The actual perpetrator wasn’t caught, however, based on the initial tests. He had coerced a co-worker to take the test for him but the deception was discovered and the perpetrator was arrested and later tested. DNA evidence was first used in the U.S. in 1987 in a trial of a man accused of sexually assaulting a mentally handicapped woman who later had a baby. DNA evidence came to prominent attention in the 1994 trial of former football star O.J. Simpson, accused of a double homicide. 

DNA facial recognition paternity test

A DNA facial recognition test can often be done within 24 hours and can be used to get fast results in a paternity test. The test’s accuracy may vary as this type of testing is new and the most accurate tests are still mouth swabs or blood tests. Facial recognition tests, however, are widely accepted as accurate and most companies provide guarantees on accuracy.

The process for the test is as follows:

  • A photo is uploaded online and submitted to the testing company.
  • An additional trait questionnaire is also submitted to the testing company.
  • The test uses the photo to scan features such as eye structure, the thickness of lips and width of the mouth, ear size, cheekbone structure, etc., and analyzes it and compares it to information provided by other parties in an attempt to make a match. 
  • Facial patterns are calculated to identify traits that can and cannot be passed from parent to child.

DNA facial recognition app

You can download DNA facial recognition apps for your smartphone. As with any app of this sort the accuracy will vary. Trained professionals like those at Choice DNA Testing can often give you better insight into the results of tests, and will often have the best equipment available for such tests. Some of these apps are connected with DNA testing companies, and you may have to pay a fee to get results. Other apps may be designed simply for personal use and enjoyment.

A Blood Test is a Traditional Way to Test DNA.

Ancestry DNA face recognition

When it comes to researching your genealogy, face recognition can be a useful tool, especially when you have no mouth swabs or blood samples available. If you are researching your ancestry and are interested in DNA facial recognition in , IN, you get some of the most accurate testing around from Choice DNA Testing. We offer a wide array of testing services from ancestry to paternity testing. Learn more about how we can aid you in your research by calling 800-219-4362.

What does Zygosity mean?

testing

DNA Testing and More

There are factors when twins are born that can help the delivering doctor determine if they are fraternal or identical. One of those factors is the placenta’s appearance, but that doesn’t provide a definitive answer. A twin zygosity test can take the comparison a step further and provide that definitive answer. 

Zygosity refers to identical twins coming from the one egg, a zygote, when early in the developing phase, the egg splits, forming two embryos. The twins born from this zygosity, coming from one egg that mated with one sperm, will have the exact same DNA. To learn more about a twin zygosity test in , IN, connect with us by dialing 800-219-4362.

What is a Zygosity test?

Twin zygosity testing can be done during prenatal or after birth. It evaluates DNA marker patterns concerning siblings to evaluate whether persons from multiple gestations, such as twins, triplets, are identical (monozygotic) or fraternal (dizygotic).

technician testing dna

What causes an egg to split into twins?

At the very beginning of development, one egg is fertilized by one sperm and forms identical twins, then the zygote splits in half. At this time, the zygote is a cluster of only a few cells. The division happening this early, each baby has precisely the same genetic information. 

When an expectant mother undergoes fertility assistance, identical twins can occur when one of the fertilized eggs is returned to her uterus, if that egg divides in half. This will create identical twins. 

Country, ethnicity, or race has no bearing on identical twins. Every couple has the same chance of having identical twins, regardless.  The odds of a pregnancy resulting in identical twins is one in every three sets. The remaining two-thirds are non-identical. 

How can you tell if twins are identical or fraternal?

  • Chromosomes: Identical twins are more than two individuals that look like each other. All babies possess XX or XY chromosomes, which distinguishes them as boys (XY) or girls (XX). A girl-boy twin set occurs when an X sperm fertilizes an X egg and a Y sperm fertilizes the other X egg. In rare cases are monozygotic twins are typically the same gender, therefore, it is safe to assume that a set of boy/girl twins are fraternal, which are the most common twin zygosity is approximately forty percent of all twins born.
  • Blood Type: The blood type of multiples can assist in determining zygosity.  The blood type of identical twins, (monozygotic) is typically the same, with some rare exceptions. The blood type of fraternal (dizygotic) twins could be different or the same. With this in mind, it is usually the conclusion that a set of twins with distinct blood types are fraternal. However, a set of twins with the matching blood type can be fraternal or identical. 
  • Development: A set of identical twins are developed from one fertilized egg, sharing the same placenta and typically two amniotic sacs. Fraternal twins are developed from two separate eggs and have individual amniotic sacs. 
  • DNA: A set of identical twins share the same DNA and typically develop at the same rate. Fraternal twins have separate DNA and develop differently. 

Do twins have same fingerprints?

Through twin zygosity test, the DNA fingerprints of dizygotic twins are used to identify them. If they do not match at least of two or more markers, the DNA fingerprints are a complete match, the twins are likely monozygotic. However, the complete genome of children cannot be determined solely by DNA fingerprinting. So, even with twin zygosity assessment, there is a slight possibility that twins, despite all DNA markers to match, are dizygotic.

How do you find Zygosity?

A twin zygosity test is with DNA. This is the most accurate process to determine zygosity. They take a swab from the mouth of each twin to be tested. The laboratory will use those swab samples to analyze the specific genetic markers of individual regions. It is important to note that the DNA of fraternal twins may differ.  

These regions are selected with extreme care because every human shares similar DNA.  Twin zygosity testing can be done on the cells found in amniotic fluid, blood, cheeks, and other tissues. Twin zygosity test does a comparison of the DNA profiles of the twins at several markers, looking for a match.

If there are many markers the same in a set of twins, the probability is 99% they are identical twins. If there is one marker different, we consider the twins as fraternal. The more markers the lab studies, more reliable the twin zygosity test results are.

sampling and testing dna

Noteworthy

If twin zygosity test interests you, it is important to find a laboratory that is reliable and trustworthy. You can do a Google search for “twin zygosity test near meto gain a list, then research several before deciding. You can also ask your own medical professionals to recommend a testing laboratory or inquire if they do the testing in-house. Dial 800-219-4362 to talk with us about twin zygosity test in , IN.

Ancestry DNA Testing

ancestoral family album with pictures scattered around

Get More of an Idea About Ancestry DNA Testing

Getting to know more about your ancestry can be an exciting process. You’ll be able to trace through generations and find out more about where your ancestors lived as well as common traits that you carry and will also pass down to future generations. Ancestry DNA testing can come in many forms and depending on what kind of test and company you go with you may be able to gather a plethora of information that you may not have known before. It’s essential to get familiar with ancestry DNA testing so that you can have an idea of what to expect with results and the process of testing. Get in touch with your chosen DNA company to see what others have experienced and to find out what test may be right for you. Until then, here is a little background knowledge regarding ancestry DNA testing that may prove particularly useful to you.

How accurate is DNA testing for ancestry?

Ancestry DNA testing can be regarded as a highly accurate method of reading hundreds of thousands of positions/markers in your DNA. Current technology with ancestry DNA testing on average has an accuracy rate of over 99% with each tested marker.

What does an ancestry DNA test reveal?

An ancestry DNA testing reveals autosomal, Y-chromosome, or mitochondrial DNA information depending on the company/test that you go with. With autosomal DNA tests, the entire genome of a person is surveyed over 700,00 locations. It will cover the maternal and paternal sides of a family tree which can cover all lineages.

What does AncestryDNA traits tell you?

Ancestry DNA testing traits have to do with attributes that you’ve inherited from your ancestors that you may also share with your family members and may continue to pass down to any future generations. Essentially, ancestry DNA testing traits will give you insight that is personal in order to help you understand how your DNA influences the parts of you that are unique.

How many generations should a family history cover?

Family history can cover multiple generations depending on how far back you are able to go. After completing 5 generations you’ll have 30 ancestors, 10 generations will give you 1022, and with 15 generations you’ll have 32,766 ancestors.

How far back does ancestry family tree go?

With ancestry DNA testing you may be able to go back into the last 1,000 years, with results showing you the areas your ancestors likely came from and your ethnic origins. You may even be able to connect with distant cousins that can be added to your family tree.

How many generations does DNA go back?

Genetically you may be able to inherit more than half of an ancestor’s DNA, going seven generations back less than 1% of your DNA is likely to come from any given ancestor.

double helix of the DNA in blue background

What are 3 characteristics of DNA?

Three Types of Chemical Components

  • Phosphate
  • Deoxyribose (sugar)
  • Nitrogenous (bases)
    • Adenine 
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine

Does ancestry tell you who your parents are?

If there is a question of parentage there are genealogists who can help adoptees or people who only know one parent track and locate their biological families.

Do you inherit more DNA from mother or father?

Genetically speaking you’ll carry more of your mother’s DNA as you carry little organelles that live with the cells or the mitochondria which can only be received from your mother.

Can siblings have different DNA?

Siblings can get different results with their ancestry DNA testing due to the fact that even though they may share the same parents DNA isn’t passed down from generation to generation in a single block. What’s more, not every child in a given family will get the same 50% of their mom’s or 50% of their dad’s DNA.

Reach Out to Professional DNA Testers For More Information

If you’re getting ready to start the process of ancestry dna testing get in touch with the company or do your research before committing to getting an idea of what will come next. Ancestry DNA testing can differ from kit to kit and ultimately you may be able to get more out of one than another depending on what is included in the test. As such, ancestry DNA testing is a very rewarding way to learn more about your history and discover the long lineage that your family carries. As the science behind DNA testing of any kind can be verbose, it may be an exciting endeavor to delve in deep on your own about what is essentially going on behind every DNA test. As it is, gathering information of any kind regarding your rich ancestral history will be a great addition to pass down to future generations as you’ll be able to keep your results for a long time. If you have any questions regarding ancestry DNA testing with processes and expectations get into contact with your chosen DNA testing lab and company soon!

If you’re interested in ancestry DNA testing in , IN call 800-219-4362 with Choice DNA Testing! 

Can DNA tests be wrong?

DNA

Do DNA tests show both parents?

Depending on your type of DNA test, there are possibilities in the process you may not account for. Tests that test the DNA shared between a child and a parent can have a low chance of offering a false positive or come back inconclusive. However, when it comes to the modern DNA testing process, the chance of something being wrong or misleadingly inaccurate is less than a ten percent chance. Day by day, when the process is done correctly the tests get more accurate. This is due to the wealth of information available to testers and the advanced technology used to examine the DNA. For ancestry testing, in particular, there is a process the tester will put the DNA through that picks up similarities with people that had lived in the places the DNA can be traced back to. 

When it comes to parents, or paternity and maternity testing, a child will get fifty percent of their DNA from each. If the child knows one parent, the test gets extremely easy. Furthermore, DNA testing can exclude those that are not the father or mother by ninety-nine to one hundred percent. Ancestry testing in this regard can also help by putting the genetic information in a database and matching it to those that it has the reference to. It narrows down the search and can greatly assist the endeavor of finding a blood relative. If you are in need of ancestry or paternal testing, trust Choice DNA Testing in Merriville, IN to help find the information you need. Call 800-219-4362 to schedule your appointment and get the process started.

What can someone do with your DNA?

When it comes to the legality of using DNA against a person, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act prevents any health care company or employer from using and/or referencing genetic material in the process of employment or coverage. The act of gene theft is the action of someone acquiring your DNA without your knowledge or against your wishes. Some companies may have an interest in the information about you, which includes your genetic material, but it is an invasion of privacy when done in a malicious manner and can lead to legal issues.

When it comes to a crime in which you are the victim, your DNA can be accessed by health officials and involved law agencies. This can be done without a warrant and it is located in your health record. This is generally due to if something were to happen to you, health providers can have a better picture about who you are while police can gather information better through that window.

Paired with your other health documents and if it is in a legal database, this can inform either the police or health providers a great deal such as:

  • Diseases you may have
  • Information about your identity
  • Association with different conditions

While the police department would be using it in reference to a crime, doctors and nurses would use it to piece together treatments for you or to help them in finding your health records.

Can you share DNA and not be related?

Normally, DNA is shared through paternal and maternal lines, a person would not normally share random strangers DNA if they are unrelated. When members of the family get DNA testing, the general consensus is that grandparents share with you around twenty-five percent of your genetic material while cousins can share around thirteen percent. As a person’s line is less direct to you, so is there DNA by a wide margin. As mentioned, DNA testing in that regard tells you who you are not related to. When it comes to a person of no relation to yourself, you will find that you share no similarity if both of you were to get DNA testing.

There’s a common misconception that mouth swabs can lead to incorrect or inaccurate results in terms of DNA testing. Unlike other kinds of tests, contamination will not have any real consequence besides the loss of that specific test. The lab will at that point simply ask for another swab of the person getting tested due to the conditions being recognizable and the DNA that was originally sent being unreadable.

DNA testing

What diseases can genetic testing find?

Genetic testing can find a wealth of diseases a person may have, but it does not necessarily mean the person does have the disease their parents or ancestors had. There is a multitude of explanations for this, but one can be described as the test recipient has a bodily makeup that either resists the disease, the disease lays dormant in that person, or it simply does not pass on. DNA testing can determine such diseases the test taker may have like:

  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Estimates risk for common diseases
  • Status for diseases found in the bloodstream or tissue

You can figure out if you are resistant to some diseases when of course the disease is well recognized. Diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s can also be caught with DNA testing, though it is more so a test dictating you are more or less likely to have it on some occasions. We recommend speaking to an expert on the subject that can offer more information like those found at Choice DNA Testing in Merriville, IN. Call 800-219-4362 today to set up your appointment and get your DNA testing done with us.

What does DNA Testing tell you?

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic makeup of every living organic thing and carries the instructions for growth, functioning, development, and even reproduction. Being in a double helix form that allows it to carry such information, DNA testing can tell the recipient a wealth of knowledge that can be both personal or public depending on what they are looking for. Whether it is covering the person’s personal health, their ancestry, how they will develop, and more, DNA contains every bit of information that culminates into the person being researched. Not only for broad reasons, but DNA testing can also help with the discovery of a person to discover their blood relatives and specific diets that will activate positive or negative reactions to their personal health. Choice DNA Testing can help with all of these DNA services and more with a call to 800-219-4362, you too can learn about yourself through your own DNA.

Is DNA testing 100% accurate?

While it may seem that  DNA testing examines only one thing, the process by nature actually must look over multiple factors that make the genetic make up of what is given for study. For that reason, modern DNA testing cannot promise one hundred percent accuracy in every subject, but can give a great amount of detail in each subject with the accuracy of each being over ninety percent. That is just if the person or situation only runs on the DNA given for DNA testing, going through a rigorous process of reading the genetic code and matching it to what is already known by using what DNA has already been explored. 

Being that two people cannot have the same DNA, each person has their own unique genetic code that makes up their person. Those that study DNA and carry out DNA testing can recognize certain qualities that would make up a person based on what they find in their genetic material, helping to paint a picture of that person’s appearance. This can also lead the person studying the material to be led towards direct family members such as siblings and parents, who share fifty percent of the genetic material with the person they are related to. 

This hopefully assists in explaining how DNA testing helps solve crimes. Law enforcement, when finding genetic material, better know the likelihood that a specific person that had committed a crime if not directly leading law enforcement to the perpetrator of a crime. If an adult is convicted of a crime, law enforcement can retain that DNA upon conviction. This includes genetic material recovered by them during an investigation and fingerprints taken during the process after the conviction. All the data from the process is put into a CODIS (Combined DNA Codex System), which is maintained by the Federal Bureau of investigation or the FBI.

What can DNA testing tell you?

As mentioned, DNA can tell you a wealth of things that can describe your ancestry and personal health. Doctors often use genetic testing to help patients with diagnosing chronic or developing diseases in the person and assist in helping determine an appropriate path of treatment. Being the genetic code that directs a living thing to develop, DNA testing can inform a child’s parents how roughly they will develop into an adult. It will also indicate what to be prepared for if a disease maternally or paternally is passed on by the parent. 

A DNA test can also help determine a person’s personal qualities such as race and nationality through snippets of what can be found through their genetic heritage. There is an assumption that the test will tell you exactly what group your makeup belongs to, but that is not necessarily true. DNA testing pinpoints what makes up a person and helps them determine their ancestry by way of showing the factors that can be shared with the relevant data used as references. While it may not paint an exact picture of a person’s race or place of origin, it be huge in helping figure it out if not solving it with correlating information. 

Can DNA tests be done with just the father and child?

When it comes to blood relatives, DNA testing can help deduce who a child’s parents are. Both parents do not have to be present in order to test their child’s DNA and neither do both have to be tested in order for it to be conducted, but testing both parents does paint the best picture in terms of DNA testing a child. Furthermore, a child receives half their genetic code from one parent and half from the other. That means that while the chances are high when only one parent commits to a DNA test with their child, it is possible for the test to not be capable of showing a conclusive result for a direct paternal or maternal link. 

Siblings on the other hand also share fifty percent of their genetic code. Even for fraternal twins, there is fifty percent in relating characteristics, but as mentioned before no two people have one hundred percent the same DNA. While it may seem like that makes the results inconclusive, it still has above a ninety percent accurate result and often helps families in a multitude of successful cases.

When it comes to family or loved ones however, Choice DNA Testing has Project Reconnect to help with connecting to family members that are veterans or are caught up in natural disasters. We understand the interest in finding those that were lost or may need help, that is why we have set up our DNA testing system especially for those in need.

What are DNA testing kits?

A DNA testing kit is generally a package that comes with a swab and a test tube that can be sealed. The intention upon receiving such a package is to swab the inside of your cheek, fill the tube with enough saliva, and send it to the indicated lab for testing. While a doctors office will use your genetic data for your personal health, these kits are more popularly designed to determine your ancestry, matching your genetic makeup with both those that are already cataloged as well as finding pertinent information about what makes up a person’s design. These tests can point to a person’s heritage stemming back generations and as time goes on, the tests will be able to go further back to determine a person’s ancestors.

What is Forensic DNA Testing?

forensic scientist checking for evidence behind a crime scene barrier

Learn More About Forensic DNA Testing?

Perhaps one of the more important types of DNA testing, forensic DNA testing is essential in helping to determine missing information in a crime scene investigation. It can determine information from the victim or suspects such as determining the conditions of a suspect during a crime. It can also pull up on other unknown information surrounding a crime that was not easily discerned without testing. As with any criminal case, it’s important to rely on professional services as far as the process of solving a case. If you have any inquiries, be sure to do your research and get in touch with a professional DNA testing company. Here is some information regarding forensic DNA testing that may prove useful to you.

When did forensic DNA testing start?

Forensic DNA testing started as a process by Jeffreys in connection with Dave Werrett and Peter Fill of the Forensic Science Service (FSS) when it was first used in solving the murder of two teens who were raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire in 1983 and 1986.

How does forensic DNA testing work?

Forensic DNA testing is typically used with deposited materials at a crime scene and compared to known samples taken from a victim or suspect. Most of these DNA samples are then submitted to a lab to extract the DNA from the cell. There are then additional steps or methods used in the process of forensic DNA testing.

What methods are used to test DNA?

The methods of testing DNA involve four steps that encompass extraction, quantitation, amplification, and capillary electrophoresis. With the incorporation of forensic DNA testing, techniques have been developing rapidly with given methods of analysis. Such methods include short tandem repeats, dot blots of allelic sequence information, mitochondrial sequence determination and restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

Forensic Technician shows swabs to remove DNA at the scene after a crime

How does forensic DNA testing work?

  • Extraction
  • Quantitation
  • Amplification
  • Capillary Electrophoresis
  • DNA Profiling

DNA Profiling

DNA profiling will be used as a forensic technique with forensic DNA testing in a criminal investigation in order to compare a criminal suspect’s profile to DNA evidence. This will determine the likelihood of a criminal suspect’s involvement in a crime. DNA profiling is also used with other cases like to establish immigration eligibility, parentage, and can also help with medical and genealogical and research. 

What do forensic toxicologists do?

Forensic toxicologists perform scientific tests on tissue samples as well as bodily fluids in order to determine if there are any chemicals or drugs in the body. As far as investigating a crime a forensic toxicologist will be part of the team investigating and will have the job of isolating and identifying any substances in the body that could have contributed to the crime.

What degree does a forensic DNA analyst need?

The degree that’s required for DNA analysis is a Bachelor’s degree in forensic science, biology or chemistry with a good amount of course work in molecular biology, genetics, statistics, and biochemistry.  

How long does forensic DNA testing take?

Forensic DNA testing takes about 24-72 hours but the amount of time that it takes to take DNA from a crime scene can span as long as 14 days. With this, it can sometimes be the case that suspects have been released by the time results come around. 

Problems With Forensic DNA Testing

It’s important to have forensic DNA testing that’s reliable especially when they’re needed for evidence in court cases. This will lie in the reliability of a laboratory with its analysis processes like following the recognized standard of disclosure. Even in civil (noncriminal) cases like paternity or proof of death the standard of admissibility must be high in case of DNA evidence not being positive.

How accurate is forensic DNA testing?

There is no test that will result in 100% accuracy as there are many factors that can determine results. 

Can you refuse to give a DNA sample to the police?

Some states will only allow using reasonable force after a court order has been granted in order to obtain a sample for forensic DNA testing. Certain jurisdictions may have the refusal of providing a DNA sample deemed as a crime that is punishable by a fine and imprisonment.

Get Professional Assistance When Necessary

Be sure to get in contact with a reliable professional laboratory regarding your need for forensic DNA testing in Merriville, IN. A well-established DNA testing lab will be able to properly follow guidelines and protocol regarding the processes of analysis and further the investigation of a case. In connection to DNA testing, related services like having theft and vandalism insurance claim help can be useful if applicable. Get the answers that you need for legal matters with the incorporation of forensic DNA testing. Get in touch with a professional lab today to get the process started.

If you need forensic DNA testing in , IN call 800-219-4362 with Choice DNA Testing! 

How do you get a court ordered DNA test?

Court Required DNA testing

DNA testing for legal needs

It would seem like “everyone” is all about having their DNA tested these days doesn’t it? We all want to know or heritage and lineage more than ever it seems. There are other uses too, like testing DNA used as evidence

DNA testing and court cases are an everyday occurrence like DNA testing for court cases like child support and criminal cases. There are requirements for DNA testing for court in immigration cases and DNA testing court ordered for probation hearings, and others. 

Can you legally request a DNA test?

Regarding a DNA test for paternity testing, the complex laboratory process is very accurate in helping to identify a child’s biological father. In these types of situations, the purpose of testing DNA used as evidence is to give clear evidence to all involved in cases of child support. 

Sometimes the mother may not be sure of who the father is, or a man may question his paternity. In either case, that mother or father may want to establish their parentage with a legal request for DNA testing. However, it isn’t as easy as sending a request or volunteering to be tested. 

The legal system has a process to request DNA used as evidence that must be followed. The first step for either side is to contact a lawyer who will draft the proper paperwork and file it accordingly with the courts. Either parent (or alleged parent) can begin this process to establish paternity. 

After the court has received the petition, they will have it served to all parties involved in the case. If the alleged father is married to another person, they both will need to be served. 

 Can a DNA test be wrong?

While testing DNA used as evidence has become more accurate and exact, that doesn’t mean there are no errors and reality and results may contradict each other, thereby making the DNA test results wrong. How does this happen in an environment that is protected and sterile?

  • Tests Tampering: Testing DNA used as evidence can be tampered with by any person that has access to the sample that is submitted.
  • Lab Error: As accurate and careful as laboratories are that handle DNA used as evidence, there is a small room for errors that lead to inaccurate or wrong results.
  • Related Paternity Candidates: The possibility of erroneous testing of DNA used as evidence could be a blood relation between the father and the child. An example would be if a direct blood relative of the father is the actual father of the child.
  • DNA Mutations: DNA mutation creates the possibility of testing DNA used as evidence for paternity test purposes could be incorrect. Mutations are constant and are not an issue in most cases. However, if sperm has any mutated strand of DNA, the testing for the child could test differently.

How much does DNA test cost?

The cost for testing DNA used as evidence can vary from city to city, state to state, as there is no set fee schedule for this. An average cost for a legal DNA used as evidence in a paternity case could start around $300 and go upward. For a non-legal paternity test, there are kits available over the counter starting around $30, but this does not include the testing. Additional services like the testing and the shipping cost extra.

How long does court-ordered DNA testing take?

If the court pays for testing DNA used as evidence, the turnaround time can take 5 to 8 weeks. If the state is paying for DNA testing, they will require the persons involved in the testing to repay the state.

Can a home DNA test be used in court?

Direct and short answer to this is – No – an at-home DNA test is not admissible in court. You can get a test for DNA used as evidence by a third party, then have it transported to an approved facility. Before purchasing an at-home DNA kit, inquire what the process and restrictions are and if the test will be admissible.

When Would A Test For DNA Used As Evidence Be Needed?

The most common reason for DNA testing is to determine biological parent, typically the father. It could be for a child support dispute, or because a person wants to know. Other legal reasons a judge would order a test for DNA used as evidence:

Child Support and Custody

When a couple is married, and a child is conceived and/born during that time, we assume the man is the father. If the couple were to separate and/or divorce later, the man is still considered legally to be the father and is held financially responsible. This is so even if a DNA test result shows he is not biologically the father.

If a couple has a child while not married, then the courts will determine a legal relationship between the father and child before establishing child support requirements.

If there are any doubts by the presumed father that he is not the child’s biological father, he may request the court have testing for DNA used as evidence before he signs the birth certificate and acknowledges paternity.

Inheritance Rights

Sometimes, inheritances are disputed among the surviving family members and an unknown heir. The alleged heir may file for a test of DNA used as evidence to determine their rights. Heirs with inheritance rights may have other benefits due to them, such as life insurance and Social Security.  Here, the court will order a medical examiner to collect the DNA used as evidence, then submit it to an accredited, approved

Immigration

The government is one of the biggest users of DNA used as evidence to support family relationships to get birth certificates, Social Security card, and other documentation.  

Adoption

A person who has been adopted from birth or a very young age will sometimes have the desire to learn their biological roots. Once they have located the birth parents, it is common they be requested to have DNA used as evidence to confirm the relationship.

DNA testing lab being completed

Bringing Closure

It is clear by the information within this piece that DNA used as evidence to bring closure for many reasons. While there is still a possibility for error with a DNA test, today it is the best method we have to clarify and verify things.  Need quality DNA testing for your court case? Call the experts at Choice DNA Testing at 800-219-4362 today!